One thing that's really important to think about when you're comparing the Moderne and Pfizer vaccines to the Johnson Johnson vaccine is that it is very difficult to directly compare their efficacy because the These were set up to have a different end point and when you're designing a clinical trial the endpoint is how you decide. What success is Moderne Pfizer were looking at could they prevent any symptomatic covid infections after two doses Johnson & Johnson is looking at whether it could prevent moderate to severe covid after one dose. So that difference you can almost think about it as like they actually set themselves a higher bar.
Comparing Efficacy Rates Between Moderna, Pfizer, & J&J COVID-19 Vaccines Is Difficult
The Third Vaccine, and Vaccine Choice - Jorge Conde, Lauren Richardson, Ph.D